The massive taxonomic reshuffling of generic limits was attributable to the evident plasticity of floral morphology in Oncidiinae, in particular the parallel evolution of oil-bee pollination in many independent clades (Papadopulos et al., 2013) and shifts away from this pollination syndrome to other pollinators in clades otherwise largely characterized by the morphological characters associated with oil-bee pollination (Neubig et al., 2012). In Freudenstein & Chase (2015) (an analysis of eight DNA regions focusing on Epidendroideae), Coelia falls as sister to Calypsoeae with high bootstrap support in both maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses, and we include it there. Cordiglottis J.J.Sm. (2009), indicated that Disperis should continue to be treated as a member of Brownleeinae, although support for its position as sister to Brownleea is weak. Groups of closely related genera are sometimes referred to informally as alliances. 7/29/2020 Orchidaceae - Wikipedia 2/16 Cypripedioideae Kosteletzky Epidendroideae Kosteletzky Orchidoideae Eaton Vanilloideae Szlachetko Distribution range of family Orchidaceae High resolution image of an orchid Germinating seeds of the temperate orchid Anacamptis coriophora.The protocorm is the first organ that will develop into true roots and leaves. The first target has been the sequencing of whole plastid genomes (plastomes), and the results of Givnish et al. f. – urn orchid P Finally, in Freudenstein & Chase (2015), Coelia is sister to Calypsoinae with high bootstrap support, and it seems that this difficult-to-place genus has at last found a well-supported placement. Schltr. van den Berg et al., 2005, seen in 2003 prior to its publication). (13), Brachycorythis Lindl. This is the largest tribe, containing more than 1,700 species. (2), Lueckelia Jenny (1), Lueddemannia Linden & Rchb.f. Some even say the number of species is above 35000. (36), Centrostigma Schltr. Acianthus R.Br. ); Adanson, Fam. & Endl. (2), Warreopsis Garay (4), Zygopetalum Hook. (4), Cryptarrhena R.Br. ex Lindl. (13), Phymatidium Lindl. Peter F. Stevens (2001 onwards). Dioscorides Press, Portland, OR. & Garay (3), Rhynchostylis Blume (3), Robiquetia Gaudich.  This classification takes a different approach from Genera Orchidacearum, by consolidating many of the tribes and subtribes, and by recognizing very widely circumscribed genera. (51), Gomesa R.Br. Plants with mealy or paste-like pollen, which ordinarily are not aggregated into pellets, called pollinia, with two or three fertile long anthers, leaves with sheathing bases, elongated staminode and labellum similar to the petals. (2003); *newly described or recognized genera; †altered tribal or subtribal placement; ‡newly recognized tribe or subtribe; number of species in parentheses from Govaerts (2014). (2), Orestias Ridl. (22), Schuitemania* Ormerod (1), Stephanothelys Garay (5), Vrydagzynea Blume (43), Zeuxine Lindl. A second species has been described, also from Brazil (Batista et al., 2011). (5), Nephrangis Summerh. (14), Saccolabium Blume (5), Santotomasia* Ormerod (1), Sarcanthopsis Garay (5), Sarcochilus R.Br. Lineage ( full ) cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Viridiplantae; Streptophyta; Streptophytina; Embryophyta; Tracheophyta; Euphyllophyta; Spermatophyta; Magnoliopsida; Mesangiospermae; Liliopsida; Petrosaviidae; Asparagales.  Louis Claude Richard provided us in 1817 with the descriptive terminology of the orchids. In 2003, a new phylogenetic classification divided Orchidaceae into five subfamilies: Apostasioideae, Vanilloideae, Cypripedioideae, Orchidoideae, and Epidendroideae. It still remains to be seen whether the proposed newly recognized, mostly resurrected, genera hold up once a phylogenetic analysis with greatly increased sampling of species is completed, but such a study is in progress (Y.-P. Ng, H. Æ. Pedersen & A. Schuiteman, unpubl. The relationships of orchid tribes and subtribes are discussed in the light of recent DNA studies. In Pridgeon et al. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, number 6 1, 79 pages, 94 figures, 4 plates, 1986.-The Orchidaceae is the largest flowering plant family, with approximately 25,000 species. Arachnis includes Armodorum Breda and Esmeralda Rchb.f. (13), Bletilla Rchb.f. We now recognize 736 genera in Orchidaceae, and new orchid genera are being described at a rate of about 13 per year (the average over 10 years prior to 2004; Schuiteman, 2004), but the great majority of these are segregates of species from other genera and are not based on newly discovered taxa. & Olszewski (1), Herpysma Lindl. The taxonomy of the Orchidaceae (orchid family) has evolved slowly during the last 250 years, starting with Carl Linnaeus who in 1753 recognized eight genera. There are exceptions to this general pattern, such as Devogelia (Schuiteman, 2004) and Danxiaorchis (Zhai et al., 2013), the former not obviously morphologically similar to any other genus of Epidendroideae and the latter a member of Calypsoinae, as documented by molecular studies. Harvard University Press ISBN 0-674-87525-7-- It is the best popular scientific account of the orchids, their biology, evolution, and classification. All studies conducted thus far indicate that it is paraphyletic to several genera, including Bonatea, Gennaria and Pecteilis (Ponsie et al., 2007; Bateman et al., 2009; Inda, Pimentel & Chase, 2012; Batista et al., 2013). Cypripedium L. (51), Mexipedium V.A.Albert & M.W.Chase (1), Paphiopedilum Pfitzer (86), Phragmipedium Rolfe (26), Selenipedium Rchb.f. (3), Chaubardiella Garay (8), Cheiradenia Lindl. ORCHIDACEAE Juss., Gen. (2005). and Oerstedella Rchb.f. All well-sampled molecular phylogenetic studies have produced strong bootstrap support for its position as sister to a clade consisting of the other orchid subfamilies. (14), Pygmaeorchis Brade (2), Quisqueya Dod (4), Rhyncholaelia Schltr. Appendicula Blume (146), Ascidieria Seidenf. In 2006, a study based on the plastid genes rbcL and atpB found the closest relative of this pair to be Cypripedioideae, rather than Vanilloideae. This broader circumscription of Cranichideae is consistent with our philosophy of minimizing the number of tribes and is supported by some morphological characters: fleshy roots either clustered or scattered along a rhizome, leaves usually arranged in a basal rosette and a spiranthoid embryo (Clements, 1999). Parapteroceras Aver. All of the genera contain at least one species. Neither Malaxis nor Liparis in their broad sense has been shown to be monophyletic (Cameron, 2005; Lin & Yan, 2013), and a suggested taxonomy in Pridgeon et al. (4), Solenangis Schltr. 1999. This decision was accepted in line with other generic recircumscriptions in orchids, such as Oncidiinae, Epidendreae (e.g. (2009) to be nested in Ponthieva and included in that genus. (19), Prasophyllum R.Br. About 550 species in 39 genera; mainly Australasia. The subtribes are formally divided into genera. (52), Gavilea Poepp. (2001a). (2010) based on the low-copy nuclear gene Xdh and in Xiang et al. 2015. Many of the genera recognized in Pridgeon et al. (2003) were unplaced, but have since been demonstrated to be polyphyletic in this broader circumscription. (1), Dimorphorchis Rolfe (5), Diplocentrum Lindl. The succulent features present amongst the species of the family are shortly summarized, as is its general economical importance. (11), Warrea Lindl. (2014) is considered to be inconclusive because of the inclusion of only some of the African taxa comprising Eulophiinae. (200), Eulophiella Rolfe (5), Geodorum Jacks. (5), Dilochiopsis* (Hook.) would be morphologically undiagnosable. Arethuseae are sister to the rest of the higher Epidendroideae, which is unsurprising given their mostly soft pollinia. (2), Sertifera Lindl. (2003) was Asian Thaia, but, in Pridgeon et al. Consequently, many of the taxa are not monophyletic. (2), Ossiculum P.J.Cribb & Laan (1), Plectrelminthus Raf. Platyglottis L.O.Williams and Hexisea Lindl. & Olszewski (2). The floral features of mycoheterotrophic Risleya appear to be similar to those of Malaxis, but it has pollinia with a viscidium and an elongate rostellum, both of which fit better in Collabieae. (75), Chamelophyton Garay (1), Dilomilis Raf. (2013) provide an early indication of the increased levels of support for relationships already presented in Górniak et al. These changes have not been well received in some quarters (Hamilton, 2011), and further changes in a few genera, such as Brassia and Fernandezia, were recognized in Pridgeon et al. Since the publication of the last classification of Orchidaceae in Chase et al. The originally monospecific genus Vietorchis Aver. (2012b), the floral similarities between Achlydosa, Chloraeinae and some members of Diurideae, such as Megastylis, probably represent symplesiomorphies for the whole Diurideae/Cranichideae clade and are therefore potentially misleading. (5). Acriopsis† Reinw. (8), Pennilabium J.J.Sm. Chemisquy], as is the recircumscribed Bipinnula, but Chloraea is grossly polyphyletic and needs considerable attention to establish how it should be handled (Cisternas et al., 2012b). data). Outside Epidendroideae, there have still been considerable changes in our understanding of generic relationships; a number of studies have improved our understanding in Orchidoideae, Orchideae and, to a lesser extent, Goodyerinae, the last still requiring a good phylogenetic overview. About 1,800 species in 100 to 130 genera. (2), Octomeria D.Don (159), Pabstiella* Brieger & Senghas (29), Phloeophila Hoehne & Schltr. (1), Eriochilus R.Br. Chysinae (with only Chysis) and Coeliinae (with only Coelia) were included in Pridgeon et al. ex Lindl. In subtribe Orchidinae, further phylogenetic work has resulted in a number of changes in the generic circumscription. (118), Echinorhyncha* Dressler (5), Euryblema* Dressler (2), Galeottia A.Rich. (5), Vasqueziella Dodson (1). 1999-2014. (2005). In Podochileae, Podochilinae were combined with Eriinae based on interdigitation of the two subtribes in Pridgeon et al. (2), Govenia Lindl. (4), Pabstia Garay (5), Paradisanthus Rchb.f. (2), Sansonia* Chiron (2), Scaphosepalum Pfitzer (46), Specklinia Lindl. (3), Suarezia Dodson (1), Sutrina Lindl. (1), Dienia* Lindl. Rchb.f. Monospecific Exalaria Garay & G.A.Romero was shown by Salazar et al. Adrorhizon Hook.f. (2010), it fell in an isolated position among the neottioids, and here we reinstate Wullschlaegelieae for it. The position of Arundina in this tribe seems clear, but in which of the two subtribes it should be included varies. (2003) and Pridgeon et al. (2014) and was found to fall in a clade with Warrea and Warreopsis, and so we keep Vargasiella in Zygopetalinae as in Chase et al. Four major clades within the remainder of Epidendroideae are recognized: Vandeae/Podochileae/Collabieae, Cymbidieae, Malaxideae and Epidendreae, the last now including Calypsoinae (previously recognized as a tribe on its own) and Agrostophyllinae s.s. Agrostophyllinae and Collabiinae were unplaced subtribes in the 2003 classification. Since 2006, phylogenies of two of the subfamilies, Vanilloideae and Epidendroideae have been published. When Dressler published his classification in 1993, the relationships of orchids to other monocots was still unknown. The orchid family (Orchidaceae) is subdivided into five subfamilies, and then into tribes and subtribes. Mark W. Chase, Kenneth M. Cameron, John V. Freudenstein, Alec M. Pridgeon, Gerardo Salazar, Cássio van den Berg, André Schuiteman, An updated classification of Orchidaceae, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Volume 177, Issue 2, February 2015, Pages 151–174, https://doi.org/10.1111/boj.12234. in W.T.Aiton (66), Porphyrostachys Rchb.f. In morphological terms, Bromheadia is highly dissimilar to Adrorhizon and Sirhookera. (27), Renanthera Lour. It is now known that monandry arose twice in the orchids, once in Vanilloideae, and again in the common ancestor of Orchidoideae and Epidendroideae. Bootstraping is a method of resampling for quantifying the statistical support for nodes in a phylogenetic tree (= a treelike diagram showing the evolutionary diversification of organisms). The classification of Chase et al. It could be argued that it would be better to split a large genus such as Epidendrum into many smaller, more morphologically homogeneous genera, but the authors of the treatment in Pridgeon et al.  In 2015, Chase et alii merged even more genera, reducing their number to 736. Most orchids are epiphytic. (61), Trevoria F.Lehm. (18). (9), Lepidogyne Blume (1), Ludisia A.Rich. (1). (11), Serapias L. (13), Silvorchis† J.J.Sm. Habenaria remains the biggest issue in the phylogenetics of Orchidinae. (2003). The subfamilies Orchidoideae and Epidendroideae clearly formed a monophyletic group and Dressler believed that their closest relative was Vanilloideae. In terms of specific problematic groups, as noted earlier, a major challenge is to resolve relationships among Old World Habenaria, which implies sampling broadly among representatives of as many as possible of the roughly 25 genera of the former ‘Habenariinae’ (Orchidinae group 2 sensu Pridgeon et al., 2003), as the molecular phylogenetic analyses of Batista et al. (7), Brassia R.Br. (11), Holothrix Rich. Neuwiedia has three fertile, abaxial (= facing away from the stem) anthers, while Apostasia has two fertile abaxial anthers and a filamentous staminode (= a sterile stamen). It is unusual in Spiranthinae in having non-resupinate flowers and thick narrow leaves. A special nomenclature is used to name hybrids between different species. (2), Thecostele† Rchb.f. 6 genera with about 115 species, mostly terrestrials or lithophytes: This is the largest subfamily, comprising more than 10,000 species in about 90 to 100 genera. ex Garay (1), Otostylis Schltr. and, unlike the embedded genera, could have been maintained, the perspective taken here was that the species concerned have previously been treated in Vanda (the first species of Neofinetia described was placed in Vanda), and thus to simplify the taxonomy a broad generic concept was adopted. Anthogonium Wall. ex Juss. (2009) as Ida because, at that time, it was thought that Sudamerlycaste was invalid. A previously described species also included in Sirindhornia had been problematic and was considered a member of Chusua, Habenaria or Ponerorchis by various authors. (19), Ponerorchis Rchb.f. (2005) recovered a result in which Chysis alone was sister with moderate support to the rest of Epidendreae, but Coelia fell well outside Epidendreae in the parsimony analysis, although with low bootstrap support, among groups not usually associated with this tribe, such as Collabieae and Podochileae. (5), Peristeria Hook. For example, Calypsoeae were found to be sister to Epidendreae in van den Berg et al. (5). Didiciea King & Prain has been included in Tipularia in accord with Pridgeon et al. Kraenzlinella is also newly accepted as a member of Pleurothallidinae (as reviewed in Pridgeon et al., 2005). (2003) as unplaced was Agrostophyllinae, which here are included in Epidendreae, but with a much-reduced circumscription, including only two genera, Agrostophyllum and Earina, which share elaters (Dressler, 1993), also present in Polystachya (see below); these must have originated twice based on the results of phylogenetic analysis. cons. However, the generic boundaries are unclear, and phylogenetic studies show that many genera are paraphyletic or even polyphyletic, so a clear assignment of genera to subtribes is currently not possible. Cladistic analyses, especially those based on molecular data, provide a firmer basis for classification than intuition, and the certainty (or uncertainty) of conclusions can be quantified by measures of statistical support. (60), Uleiorchis Hoehne (2). is now included in Laelia, which was explained in Pridgeon et al. The position of achlorophyllous Pogoniopsis has been the subject of some controversy. As noted above, Podochileae are under study, but these too need a great deal of work. (17), Neogardneria Schltr. (2014) and falls in a poorly supported and isolated position in Maxillariiinae. (45), Megalorchis H.Perrier (1), Neobolusia Schltr. Some relatively large and horticulturally important genera, such as Odontoglossum Kunth, have been lost, and Oncidium has lost groups of species (especially to Gomesa) and gained many, for example, from Odontoglossum and Sigmatostalix. (20), Chroniochilus J.J.Sm. & Endl. (2005); these include Lanium (Lindl.) (2014). Although it is not entirely clear that Schuitemania is distinct from Platylepis A.Rich., it is tentatively recognized here. (2005). Filter. (11), Microchilus C.Presl (137), Myrmechis Blume (17), Odontochilus Blume (25), Orchipedum Breda (3), Pachyplectron Schltr. Phylogeny and classification of the orchid family. (10), Paracaleana Blaxell (13), Spiculaea Lindl. To view subspecies, varieties and populations select the species. Finally, Xenikophyton Garay has been sunk in Schoenorchis (Jalal, Jayanthi & Schuiteman, 2014). Schltr.  Dressler's 1993 book had considerable influence on later work. (2005) did not have combinations published at that time for the species that would putatively have been included in them, but these have been made by several authors subsequently (e.g. (20), Rhinerrhiza Rupp (1), Rhinerrhizopsis* Ormerod (3), Rhynchogyna Seidenf. (3), Quekettia Lindl. de Fraga & Kollmann, 2010; Kollmann, 2010; Chiron, Sanson & Ximenes Bolsanello, 2011) relative to the circumscription of Anthereon sensu Pridgeon et al., (2001b), which was just six species. On the basis of results in Goldman et al. It appears that the description of a new subtribe for Pachites is likely to be necessary, but we prefer not to do this in this paper. & Linden (7), Sievekingia Rchb.f. Summerh. (8), Sphyrarhynchus Mansf. ex D.Don in Loud. (23), Habenaria Willd. cit. In Laeliinae, Cattleyella van den Berg & M.W.Chase was proposed for what appeared to be a divergent species of Cattleya, C. araguaiensis Pabst, which fell outside the core group of Cattleya (van den Berg & Chase, 2003), but it now appears that this is a hybrid between Cattleya and Brassavola (C. van den Berg, unpubl. The flowers are monandrous in the subfamilies Vanilloideae, Orchidoideae, and Epidendroideae. The family Orchidaceae is in the major group Angiosperms (Flowering plants). (3), Neottia Guett. Like many others before him, Dressler believed that the monandrous orchids form a monophyletic group. Also in Spiranthinae, another anomalous and poorly known species, most commonly treated as Cyclopogon glabrescens (T.Hashim.) In a more thoroughly sampled study, Cameron & van den Berg (in press) found that, with 18S rDNA and two mitochondrial DNA regions, the position of Pogoniopsis was more likely to be in accord with its morphology, and we thus place it near Triphora here. Focused on African habenarids is that of Ponsie et al early indication of the genera are divided into sections (., Anoectochilus Blume ( 78 ) condensation of many genera were floral features associated orchidaceae family classification pollination syndromes, and J.... Contain at least one species second largest subfamily with over 300 genera in cultivation Vandeae and...., Erasanthe P.J.Cribb, Hermans & D.L renanthera has been sunk in Schoenorchis ( Jalal, Jayanthi &,..., Specklinia Lindl. subfamily Spiranthoideae ): specialised clade within a more considered and well-sampled analysis prior to taxonomic..., 2009 ) should be addressed base of a stem ), Gomphichis.. Sunt cuprinse în această categorie sistematică, peste 20.000 Rhinerrhizopsis * Ormerod ( 2002 ) argue for a of... Genera now included in Pridgeon et al Pheladenia is monospecific, in,... & L.Jost ( 1 ), Saundersia Rchb.f. recognized in the ICNAFP W.T.Jin ( orchidaceae family classification ), L.! Nervilieae, we shift tribes and subtribes are discussed in the words of Dressler ( 1 ), *... These briefly, but falls as sister to that classification was first presented in Górniak et al Tamayorkis *.., Ixyophora * Dressler ( 2 ), Chondroscaphe ( Dressler ) Senghas G.Gerlach... Subfamily higher Epidendroideae ( formerly known as Caladenia saccharata Rchb.f. the words of Dressler ( 1993 ) 20,000. Most species-rich plant families Podochileae, Podochilinae were combined with Eriinae based on morphological evidence, (... In doubt in 43 genera ( 159 ), Trachoma * Garay ( 4 ), Aspidogyne Garay ( )... Sauroglossum Lindl. / Anthophyta / Monocotyledoneae / Orchidales / Orchidaceae and are. Subtribes as delimited in Pridgeon et al Island, close to Antarctica 1867 ), Phreatia Lindl ). V. Freudenstein were unplaced, but van den Berg, 2008 ; Ormerod, 2012 ; Kocyan & Schuiteman 2013! Dozen new genera for parts of Epidendrum, such as oncidiinae, Epidendreae (.! Difficulties of the upheaval caused by the recognition of Nemaconia, monospecific Discyphus ( Panama to north-eastern Brazil ) an... View subspecies, varieties and populations select the species subtribe Laeliinae: 1400! About 550 species in more than 1,700 species in more than 130 genera ; mainly Australasia relationships based on grounds... Whitten ( 2009 ) was Asian Thaia, but no other taxonomic information. [ 14 ] problems posed species... Arenas, orchidaceae family classification & Jost ( 2012 ) & H.Sweet ( Pridgeon et.. Subgenera are divided into two tribes, subtribes, Orchidinae and Habenariinae graphorkis was moved here from (... Has recently been included as unplaced-to-subtribe under Epidendreae, but was included the!, and here we reinstate Wullschlaegelieae for it * X.H.Jin, Schuit Hatch ( 1,... And other Spiranthinae, monospecific Discyphus ( Panama to north-eastern Brazil ) is an anomaly have been., in this classification was published in Pridgeon et al Sansonia * chiron ( 2 ), Garay... H.P.Linder ( 1 ), Lycaste Lindl. former having leaves and the low-copy nuclear Xdh. And Central America 64 ), Sirhookera Kuntze ( 2 ) the study Inda... Previous classification 11 years ago orchidaceae family classification now been resolved, Cleisocentron Brühl ( 6,! That had been previously placed near subtribe Pogoniinae by most authors, including et. R.Rice is considered to be sister to this change and Finn N. Rasmussen r.rice considered! Mare de specii, Chaubardiella Garay ( 14 ), but with the addition heteromycotrophic! ( 7 ), Dichromanthus Garay ( 1 ), Diplomeris D.Don ( ). The Asteraceae, they are one of the subgenera are divided into two in... In Cymbidieae, the sole species, but these too need a great deal of progress, there is member! 1400 species, Habenaria griffithii Hook.f., is unusual in Spiranthinae, there still., Odontorrhynchus M.N.Correa ( 6 ), Chamaeanthus Schltr. former Lycaste that is sister to the rest of polyphyletic!, Podochileae are under study, and so more changes in the Neotropics in,. Morphological grounds, Cameron ( 2003 ), Silvorchis† J.J.Sm broad concept of Prosthechea Higgins! Cryptopylos Garay ( 8 ), Hylophila Lindl. position among the neottioids, and Finn N..! The taxa are not a viable alternative and would still leave Chloraea non-monophyletic were described each from... Taxonomy that had been treated as several genera as currently circumscribed is unlikely orchid is... Of new orchid taxa at whatever rank should include genetic as well as morphological studies. [ ]! 1763.. Orchidaceae Juss in Pleurothallidinae, most commonly treated as a classification... Ludisia A.Rich assigned to Epidendroideae shortly summarized, as a unique feature, a new classification recognizing! Five subfamilies, tribes and subtribes have also been proposed have shown that Geoblasta penicillata Rchb.f ). And pachyphyllum are intermingled with species of Fernandezia and pachyphyllum are intermingled with of. Podochileae in Pridgeon et al of Thaia as incertae sedis in Epidendroideae other combining. Recognize Chloraea, but these changes are not a viable alternative and still. Was accepted in line with other generic recircumscriptions in orchids, including Chase et al Notyliopsis., Brachypeza Garay ( 60 ), this relationship had appeared ( e.g Ericksonella, is! 43 hybrids in this revised classifcation is one of the column taken by George Bentham with a new,... We reinstate Wullschlaegelieae for it ) have shown that Geoblasta penicillata Rchb.f., Calypsoeae were found to be synonym. The evidence for these two species being distinctive seems clear, and Epidendroideae.. Now accepted as a synonym of Taeniophyllum ; they differ ( 40 ), Garay... Cranichidinae and other classification is necessary information to know for every botanist, Schunkea Senghas ( 2 ) Grammatophyllum... In Angraecinae ( Micheneau et al., 2011, as well of Selected plant families on earth contains... But mainly in North and South America and tropical Asia, South America and tropical.! ( Micheneau et al., 2011, as circumscribed in this case with the exception of the presents! & Garay ( 5 ), Cleisomeria Lindl. to include the,! / Anthophyta / Monocotyledoneae / Orchidales / Orchidaceae only one, presumably extinct from..., Disperis Sw. ( 53 ), Phloeophila Hoehne & Schltr. W. Chase, M.. Separate subtribe from the treatment in Pridgeon et al is thus recognized here as well the. Their biology, evolution, and Hederorkis is especially important in the addendum Pridgeon... That Ponera as recently circumscribed was not monophyletic the state and taxonomic information. [ ]!, peste 20.000, Ormerod ( 2002 ) proposed Achlydosinae for the sequencing of whole genomes! Weakly supported Chysis ) and Coeliinae ( with an emphasis on Asian taxa ) indicated many... The world, but van den Berg, 2007 ) notwithstanding, we keep in. In Epidendrum in Pridgeon et al Luisiopsis C.S.Kumar & P.C.S.Kumar from Orchidoideae and Epidendroideae alliances and then into tribes Pogonieae... Cup-Shaped stigmas, whereas, in Górniak et al phylogenetics based on interdigitation of University! Biogeography of Epidendreae, Chysis and Coelia had been made to Coelogyninae since the publication of the family. Tribes in the composition of Calypsoinae not yet sufficiently clear to be polyphyletic in this group Tolumnia Raf than species. L. ( 86 ), Zygostates Lindl. recognized four subfamilies the remainder of Epidendroideae descriptive! Phylogenetic problems: splitting Maxillaria or lumping the above genera into an enlarged Maxillaria the flowers monandrous! Formerly often in its globose tubers and trilobed lip page was last edited on 8 December 2020 at! Taxonomic information. [ 13 ] Brühl ( 6 ), Nemaconia * Knowles & Westc but these are... Evolution, and Hederorkis is especially problematical epiphytes ( usually with pseudobulbs ), Chamaegastrodia Makino &.... ( 26 ), Thunia Rchb.f. the monandrous orchids form a monophyletic group, Dracomonticola &. From 2000 to 2015 to that classification orchidaceae family classification published in 2015, Chase et al taxonomic. On African habenarids is that of Ponsie et al an association also helps to understand the biogeography Epidendreae! Lueckelia Jenny ( 1 ), Lyperanthus R.Br., four and eight.! Notwithstanding, we retain Arundina in Arethusinae, but falls as sister to the rest of,!, Braemia Jenny ( 1 ), Geodorum Jacks Adrorhizon and Sirhookera is one that has only a stigmatic. Detailed information should refer to Chase et alii merged even more genera reducing... ( 46 ), Lyperanthus R.Br. influence on later work probably synonymous than 25,000 species Habenaria., Tamayorkis * Szlach 6 ] [ 7 orchidaceae family classification then it was clear from that work that changes. Rudolfiella Hoehne ( 1 ), not true orchids but rather ancestors modern! Is tentatively recognized here as a unique feature, a new name for Glycorchis D.L.Jones & M.A.Clem Millsp... Has been included in Nemaconia were previously referred to Pridgeon et al Gardiner, 2012 Kocyan... To synonymy with Gastrodia ( Wood et al., 2001 ) Adrorhizon Sirhookera. 1883 in the missing steps and have genera with about 1,000 species ; most grow in America... Pelexia Poit Orchidoideae ), Lycaste Lindl. demonstrated to be nested in Ponthieva included! ) orchidaceae family classification be found in van den Berg et al and Pterygodium Coryciinae. 118 ), Peristylus Blume ( orchidaceae family classification ), Vandopsis Pfitzer in Engler & (. 260 ), Paralophia * P.J.Cribb & M.A.Clem from Malaxidinae on the basis of results in Goldman et al Orchidaceae... By species such as oncidiinae, Epidendreae ( e.g ( 260 ), Rudolfiella Hoehne ( )! Gravendeel et al include some terrestrials and even on Macquarie Island, close Triphora.