They believe that devotion to Basava and the other Lingayat saints will bring them their blessings and guard their lives. (1968). Social Organization. [web 1] It is viewed as a "living, moving" divinity with the Lingayat devotee. Others opposed the campaign, noting that "the population of Lingayats would be mentioned separately alongside those of Arya Samajists and a few others considered as subgroups of Hinduism in the final Census figures. [16][note 8] In 1926, the Bombay High Court ruled that "the Veerashaivas are not Shudras". The Lingayats, states Burjor Avari quoting Jha, were "extremely anti-Jain". But what has angered the community the most is the leaked caste census data, which tried to reduce the Lingayat population in the state to 9.8% from what was believed to be around 17%. Lingāchāra – Daily worship of the individual Ishtalinga icon, one to three times day. According to India Today, "Veerashaivas claim that the two communities are one and the same," while orthodox Lingayats claim that they are different. [4], In the 1871 and the 1881 colonial-era census of British India, Lingayats were listed as shudras. [web 1] The Istalinga is made up of small blue-black stone coated with fine durable thick black paste of cow dung ashes mixed with some suitable oil to withstand wear and tear. Kin groups among rural Lingayats maintain and reinforce their kinship relations through uncleniece, cross-cousin, and exchange marriages. [32], The traditional legends and hagiographic texts state Basava to be the founder of the Lingayats and its secular practices. Ideally, Lingayat kinship emphasizes the patrimonial principle, but in reality matrilineal orientations prevail both in sentiments and obligations. Modernization and Kin Network. [15] It has been a Lingayat institution since the time of Basava, serving as an academy of mystics, saints and poet-philosophers for discussion of spiritual and mundane questions of life, in open. For example, the artisan community in the village has nearly closed its doors to local customers, as it now seeks new opportunities in the nearby city market in its traditional specialities. The climate is basically a tropical monsoon type and the temperatures change periodically, varying between 15° and 40° C. Demography. [56] Lingayats persisted in their claims for decades,[16] and their persistence was strengthened by Lingayat presence within the government, and a growing level of literacy and employment in journalism and the judiciary. [1][note 6] The Lingayats always wear the Ishtalinga held with a necklace. Yediyurappa pampers dominant communities by creating caste-based authorities in an attempt to win elections and widen his sphere of influence and counter the moves of the BJP central leadership against him. It comes very close to a populistic tradition, with its own institutions and values rooted in the 27,000 Villages and some 300 towns of Karnataka. [34][36] As a leader, he developed and inspired a new devotional movement named Virashaivas, or "ardent, heroic worshippers of Shiva". However, Kerala's population growth rateis far lower than the national average, although Kerala's population more than doubled between 1951 and 1991 — adding 15.6 million people to reach a total of 29.1 million residents in 1991 — the population stood at 31.8 million by 2001 and 33.3 million in 2011. Lingayats have been estimated to be about 20% of Karnataka's population[7][note 18] Lingayats are by far the largest in population in Karnataka.They are also in prominent numbers in some parts of Maharashtra, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh.This is a list of notable Lingayats: [1] [2] [3] Levinson & Christensen (2002): "The Lingayats are a Hindu sect concentrated in the state of Karnataka (a southern provincial state of India), which covers 191,773 square kilometres. Lingayat villages are usually nucleated with houses built close to each other. [57] In 1926, the Bombay High Court ruled that "the Veerashaivas are not Shudras. For Lingayats there is no life after death. [112], Ikkeri Nayakas, Keladi dynasty (16th-18th century), Separate religious identity (21st century), Roshen Dalal (2010): "The linga is worshipped by all Shaivites, but it is the special emblem of the Lingayats or Virashaivas, a Shaivite sect. [96][97] In some parts of Karnataka, these temples are samadhis of Lingayat saints, in others such as the Veerabhadra temple of Belgavi – one of the important pilgrimage sites for Lingayats,[98] and other historic temples, the Shiva temple is operated and maintained by Lingayat priests. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. Nandimath, S. C. (1942). Lingayats are antimagic and antisupernatural in their religious orientation. 3.Those who wear both Lingam and Brahmanical cord. [70] According to Schrader, Lingayats believe that if they live an ethical life then this will be their last life, and they will merge into Shiva, a belief that has fed the confusion that they do not believe in rebirth. This concept progressively evolves:[64], Thus bhakti progresses from external icon-aided loving devotional worship of Shiva to deeper fusion of awareness with abstract Shiva, ultimately to advaita (oneness) of one's soul and god for moksha. 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